TRANSCRIBING FROM NOTATION TOTONIC SOL-FA
 Tonic Sol-fah is a system used to notate vocal music using Frenchnames for the different degrees of the scale. This system is frequentlyused in choirs. The French names are as follows:
Degree of scale1234567Sol-fahname
dohraymefahsohlahte
Semitonehigher
derefesele
Semitonelower
ramalataWhen transcribing a piece of music from notation to tonic sol-fa,rhythms are shown using various symbols while the pitches are shownusing the initial of the names in the table above. For example, if thepiece is in Bb major, then Bb will be the tonic, ie. “d”. Therefore, if youare notating a D just above the Bb, the letter “m” for me would beused.
PITCH
 The pitch of notes is given by the letter as this tells the reader whatnote to sing. Because pieces of music generally span over 2 two ormore octaves, the octave at which a note must be sung needs to beshown.
Notes in the first octave are just shown as “d”, “r” etc
Notes one octave up are shown with a
1
, two octaves up with a
2
etc. For example, if you are in Bb major and the note you want towrite is a C on the second leger line above the stave, r
1
iswritten.
 The same applies for notes below but instead of the octavenumber at the top, it is at the bottom. So if Bb is your tonic andyou want to write an A that is just below the middle line, youwould write t
1
.
When in a minor key, you start on the 6
th
degree on of the majorscale, ie. “lah”. The natural minor scale is therefore l, t, d, r, m, f, s.
 The harmonic minor scale has a raised 7
th
degree, therefore“soh” becomes “se”. The harmonic minor scale is therefore l, t, d, r, m, f, se.
 
 The melodic minor scale has a raised 6
th
and 7
th
. The 6
th
degree,however, does not change to “fe” as it usually does, but rather to“ba”. The melodic minor scale is therefore l, t, d, r, m, ba, se, lascending and s, f, m, r, d, t, l descending.
 The tonic key is generally indicated by writing the tonic note atthe beginning of the piece. If you are in Bb major, “doh is Bb”would be written. Modulations are indicated using a similarmethod.
RHYTHM
Rhythm in tonic sol-fa is visually indicated with each beat havingequivalent horizontal spaces. Just the initial letter of the desired pitchis written in the spaces (eg. “d” or “m”), unless the pitch has beenraised or lowered in which case the entire name is written, for example“de” or “la”.
Time Divisions:
Bars are notated using vertical lines ( )
 The middle of the bar is often shown using a shorter line ( | )
Crotchet beats are divided using colons ( : )
Quaver beats are divided using periods ( . )
Anything smaller, such as semiquavers, are divided usingcommas ( , )
Irregular time divisions, such as triplets, are divided usingapostrophes ( ‘ )
Notes and Rests:
Notes are written inside these divisions
If a note needs to be carried over, a dash ( – ) is used
Rests are indicated by simply leaving the division blankA bar in 4/4 (or 4/2 or 4/8) will look like this: : | :A bar in 6/8 would be written like this: : : | : :A bar in 3/4 would not have a | indicating the middle of the bar: ::
EXAMPLE
 
 The tonic key is Bb major; therefore the Bb in the middle of the stave is“doh”. These four bars would be written as follows:
Bb is doh
:|: s
1
d: d . r| m . f: m d: d| .t
1
: l
1
’d ’f s: m| t
1
: -. l
1
,t
1
d: | :
B
en
S
heard
E
1